Landscape and geography of San Marino

Republic at Monte Titano

San Marino, the oldest republic of the world, is also the smallest and oldest independent nation of the world. Approx. 32,000 inhabitants live on an area of 60.57 km² - an area that hasn’t changed since 1463. The official language is Italian, the state religion is Roman Catholic Christianity, the currency is the Euro. The republic is located between the regions Emilia Romagna (province of Rimini) and the Marches (province of Pesaro and Urbino). San Marino is only 22 kilometres away from the bathing resort of Rimini, connected by an express highway, and merely a few dozen kilometres from the Apennines. The border length to Italy is 39 km.

Country at the Adriatic Sea

The territory of the republic of San Marino has the shape of an irregular rectangle and is mostly hilly due to Monte Titano with an altitude of 750 metres. San Marino, the country’s capital, is located on Titano’s southwest slope. Eight further communities, the castles of San Marino, are located in the countryside around the mountain. They are governed by castle committees. The republic is divided into nine administrative districts or castelli (communities): San Marino, Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, and Serravalle.

Climate and nature

The San Marino climate is moderate and Mediterranean, a bit cooler than in the coastal region due to its mild altitude. Therefore, the temperatures in summer are around 20 °C to 30 °C while the winter temperatures stabilise around 10 °C to -2 °C with rare spikes in either direction. In cold winters, Monte Titano might be covered in snow. The mountain itself with its steep slopes and the hilly landscape surrounding it is strongly forested with typical Mediterranean vegetation including maples and elm trees, durmast oaks and pine trees. The Macchie, a form of indeciduous brushwood, is home to olive trees and strawberry trees, myrtle, lavender and laurel bushes. Aside from characteristically commensal species, San Marino’s fauna is particularly rich in bird species. Various songbirds and falcons breed on the high trees or in coves.

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