Politics of the republic of San Marino
Parliamentary representative democratic republic
In accordance with San Marino’s constitution, the oldest republican constitution of the world, the political system is a parliamentary representative democratic republic. San Marino has had two heads of state, the jointly reigning, so-called Capitani Reggenti (the “Captains Regent”), since 1243. They each reign six months and are elected by parliament. Inauguration takes place every 1st of April and October. Loosely based on the consuls of the Roman Republic, the Capital Reggenti represent the country and act as highest bondsmen for the abidance to the constitutional order.
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Constitutional order and political offices
Head of the San Marinese government is the foreign minister. Legislative power is the Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale) elected directly by the public. It consists of 60 councillors taking care of all parliamentary gatherings. The period of office is 5 years. The Council nominates the Capitani Reggenti and passes the national budget. The State Congress (Congresso di Stato) holds all executive power. Its ten Secretaries of State (Segretari di Stato) are appointed by the Grand and General Council for a period of five years. The merger of the fields of culture and justice is worth pointing out - given that the crime rate in San Marino is very low, the latter field is of little significance. All judiciary powers are held by the Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII), also appointed by the Grand and General Council for a period of five years. Each of the nine communities (castelli) has its own Castle Council (giunta) elected by the public. It is presided by the Capitano (Castle’s Captain) elected for a period of five years.