Modern times & Foundation of the state in Italy
Renaissance, revolution and the founding of the state
As the Eastern Roman Empire was defeated by the Ottomans in 1453, Byzantine scholars fled to Italy and taught at the newly founded universities of the country. The Renaissance was re-established and both the Vatican, and the rich Italian city-states were concerned to promote artists, painters and sculptors accordingly. The emerging nationalism aroused the hope of a new nation state, which was met by Napoleon with the founding of the Kingdom of Italy, however only briefly. Only when Austria moved back to Veneto after a bloody war with France in 1861, Lombardy fell to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont and King Emanuele II proclaimed the Kingdom of Italy.
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The Italian Renaissance
In the 15th century, many universities and schools were established in Italy - including Europe's oldest universities of Bologna and Parma - where many thinkers and scholars were trained. When after the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire, Greek scholars fled to Italy, they brought a lot of knowledge about antiquity and the almost-forgotten writings of the great Greek thinkers, which in Italy triggered a real enthusiasm. The suddenly rediscovered interest in ancient times was reflected in thought and especially in art. Especially the Vatican was in addition to the rich Italian city-states a great patron of art and promoted famous sculptors, painters and artists, although the humanistic side effects were not supported. The Italian cities and churches started to shine in a new light and the Renaissance swept across the whole Europe.
Napoleon in Italy
Because of the French Revolution in 1789 and the triumph of Napoleon, the Italians also gained hopes for a new nation state. In fact, Napoleon founded the Kingdom of Italy during his march through the country, but after theVienna Convention, all areas were re-distributed to their "rightful" owners. However, the seeds for a stronger Italian nationalism were already planted and the history meant it well with Italy.
Independence and the foundation of the state in Italy
After the turmoil of the revolution of 1848, above all Sardinia-Piedmont started and joined an alliance with France and England. The revolutionary hero Giuseppe Garibaldi gathered his revolutionary fighters and wrested Sicily and Naples from the Bourbons, and gave it to King Emanuele II of Sardinia-Piedmont. When a little later the Austrians suffered a heavy defeat in the bloody war against France in 1861 and withdrew to Veneto, the Lombardy also fell to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont. King Emanuele II then called the Kingdom of Italy, and the Tuscany joined the new kingdom voluntarily. After the incorporation of the Papal States in 1870, Italy was unified for the first time since 1000 years.